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Pioneering Engine Technology

Pioneering Engine and Systems Technology

Pioneering forklift enginesAchieving such low levels of emissions demands major investment in new technology.

Hyster has teamed up with leading engine manufacturer Cummins and is now the first manufacturer with production Tier 4i / Stage IIIB Big Trucks (over 16 Tonnes) in the world.

The Benefits

We have included new Cummins Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB engines into a number of our larger machines seen below. These have demonstrated:

Improved fuel efficiency compared to Tier 3 / Stage IIIA.

  • Productivity has also been enhanced, thanks to faster engine response
  • Cleaner and quieter operation than ever before
  • Reduced CO2 emissions, helping users to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the truck

In addition to the Cummins technologies applied to Hyster Big Trucks to reduce fuel consumption, the use of performance optimisation techniques, such as cooling on demand, load sensing hydraulics, RPM management and alternate engine idle speed, also help to reduce the total fuel consumption in all applications.

Lower Operating costs
Overall operating costs for Hyster Big Trucks will be even lower. Depending on rating, duty cycle and application, Hyster forklift trucks with Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB compliant engines can achieve up to 15% better fuel consumption.

Improved Productivity
While Tier 4i / Stage IIIB powered equipment will be inherently more expensive than Tier 3 / Stage IIIA equipment, the cost of achieving compliance will be helped by the lower overall operating cost. With improved engine response, operators can expect improved equipment productivity together with the benefit of cleaner, less fuel consuming and quieter operation.

Using less Fuel
The improved fuel consumption of such forklift engines will more than offset the marginal cost increase associated with using ULSD (Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel) fuel, low ash lube oil and particulate filter cleaning at 5,000 hours.

Which Models will Benefit

The following model series are affected by the legislation and will benefit from the new Cummins engines and Hyster engine technology:

16-18t Series Forklift Truck
Feature a new Cummins 6.7 Tier 4i / Stage IIIB compliant engine, with one power output - Rated power is 164 kW (220 hp) @ 2000 rpm, maximum torque is 949 Nm (699 lbs-ft) @ 1400 rpm and maximum power is 172 kW (230 hp) @ 1800 rpm. This forklift engine is compatible with the TE-17 transmission only.

25-32t Series Forklift Truck
Feature the new Cummins QSB 6.7 Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB compliant engine. These forklift engines produce torque and power similar to those of the current Tier 3 engines - Rated power is 194 kW (260 hp) @2200 rpm, maximum torque is 990 Nm (730 lbs-ft) @ 1500 rpm and maximum power is 201 kW (270 hp) @ 2000 rpm. The transmission system has not changed, and remains the TE-17 series.

36-48t Series Forklift Truck
The new Cummins QSL9 -350hp engine. (The Cummins QSM11, 300hp and 335hp versions remain available for Tier 3 compliant forklift trucks). Rated power for the QSL9 is 261 kW (350 hp) @2100 rpm, maximum torque is 1491 Nm (1100 lbs-ft) @ 1500 rpm and maximum power is 276 kW (370 hp) @ 1900 rpm. The transmission available with this new engine option is the TE-27 series, with the TE-32 available as an option.

Empty Container Handler
Feature a new Cummins 6.7 Tier 4i / Stage IIIB compliant engine, with one power output - Rated power is 164 kW (220 hp) @ 2000 rpm, maximum torque is 949 Nm (699 lbs-ft) @ 1400 rpm and maximum power is 172 kW (230 hp) @ 1800 rpm. This engine is compatible with the TE-17 transmission only.

Laden Container Handler
Feature a new Cummins QSL9 -350hp engine. (The Cummins QSM11, 300hp and 335hp versions remain available for Tier 3 compliant trucks). Rated power for the QSL9 is 261 kW (350 hp) @2100 rpm, maximum torque is 1491 Nm (1100 lbs-ft) @ 1500 rpm and maximum power is 276 kW (370 hp) @ 1900 rpm. The transmission available with this new engine option is the TE-27 series, with the TE-32 available as an option.

ReachStacker
Feature a new Cummins QSL9 -350hp engine. (The Cummins QSM11, 300hp and 335hp versions remain available for Tier 3 compliant trucks). Rated power for the QSL9 is 261 kW (350 hp) @2100 rpm, maximum torque is 1491 Nm (1100 lbs-ft) @ 1500 rpm and maximum power is 276 kW (370 hp) @ 1900 rpm. The transmission available with this new engine option is the TE-27 series, with the TE-32 available as an option.

Engine and System Technology

Below are the key features of the new Cummins engines and system technology from Hyster:

Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)Exhaust gas recirculation
Cummins engines utilise cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to effectively control NOx emissions. Cooled EGR works by re-circulating a varying proportion of the exhaust gas back to the cylinder. This reduces the oxygen content to a lower combustion temperature resulting in a reduction of NOx formation.

The key components of the Cummins cooled EGR system, are: EGR Valve, EGR cooler and Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGTTM).

Boosting Performance
The VGT design features a sliding nozzle, which varies the exhaust gas flow into the turbine wheel to provide rapid boost at low engine rpm and then maintain high boost at higher rpm. The system combines the benefit of both a small and large turbocharger in a single unit, enabling Cummins Tier 4 Interim to achieve significantly improved response compared to a Tier 3 engine demonstrated in customer field tests - this system not only meets emissions standards but also increases engine performance and improves fuel efficiency.

Particulate Filters and Regeneration
Cummins Particulate Filter replaces the Tier 3 muffler and provides equivalent or better sound reduction. The Particulate Filter consists of four sections: an inlet, a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and an outlet.

Exhaust flows out of the engine and into the Cummins Particulate Filter. It passes through the DOC and then into the DPF where PM is collected on the walls of the DPF. The carbon collected is then oxidized to remove it from the DPF. This is known as regeneration.

Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)When operating conditions maintain sufficient exhaust temperatures, the DPF is continually self-regenerating. This is known as passive regeneration and results in clean exhaust out of the tailpipe. On very infrequent occasions, an active self-regeneration is required to remove a build-up of PM in the DPF, due to insufficient exhaust temperatures. 

Enhanced Air Filtration

Engine filtration enhancements include a new Cummins Direct FlowTM air cleaner and Cummins crankcase ventilation system with a highly-efficient coalescing filter, both manufactured by Cummins Filtration. Air flow to the engine is improved and the highest levels of protection are assured with virtually 100 percent efficiency over the filter life and air filter element service intervals can be extended, resulting in potentially lower air cleaner filter costs.

Engine filtration enhancementThis filter unit contains a combined temperature barometric & atmospheric pressure sensor that provides data to the engine control module. Before intake air goes into the air filter, it passes through a Sy-klone pre-cleaner that ejects up to 80% of the contamination. This pre-cleaner together with the single stage air filter makes the whole system 2-stage.

Due to the high value of engines used on Big Trucks, a secondary safety filter has been included as part of both the air filter systems. It ensures clean air is delivered to the engine even if the main filter becomes compromised. This air filter system includes a self-cleaning external pre-cleaner and filter monitoring as standard.

Even Cleaner Oil Filtration
Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB requires that crankcase emissions, also known as blowby gasses, be eliminated. To achieve this, Cummins engines incorporate a highly efficient coalescing filter. The filter returns the oil to the crankcase and provides the added benefit of removing oil mist and tiny oil droplets, ensuring that the engine and powertrain remain cleaner than at Tier 3. The crankcase filter requires a simple filter element change at 2,500 hour intervals.

Electronic Engine Management
The Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB engine management system is significantly upgraded with the latest Cummins CM2250 electronic control module providing 3 times faster processing power and double memory capability compared to the Tier 3 / Stage III module.
Pressure and temperature sensors provide data to the engine's ECU to monitor constantly the condition of the DPF. The exhaust tubing between turbo charger and DPF is insulated to guarantee the minimum operating temperature that is required for the passive regeneration. All connections are designed to prevent exhaust gas leakage.

Modes to Optimise Performance
The upgraded Hyster range features a key-switch in the operator compartment, enabling the selection of an ECO-eLo (fuel efficiency) or HiP (iigh performance) mode.

The HiP mode is the normal operating mode, whereas the ECO-eLo mode reduces the maximum engine speed and makes the engines response less aggressive. The result is additional fuel saving with hardly noticeable loss of performance.

The ECO-eLo function, in addition to the use of cooling on demand & load sensing hydraulics means that overall operating costs for Hyster Big Trucks will be lower. Depending on rating, duty cycle and application, Hyster trucks with Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB compliant engines can achieve up to 15% better fuel consumption.

Intake, exhaust and charge air cooling tube as well as coolant hose routings have all been changed accordingly and fan drive ratios have been increased to achieve a higher cooling airflow. The engines are all equipped with a Variable Geometry Turbo, which continuously varies the airflow boost to precisely match engine rpm and load demands for optimal performance.

Cooling
Due to the revised cooling needs, the cooling package has been upgraded with a bigger radiator section and a smaller charge air cooler. On the 16-22t trucks, a smaller transmission oil cooler was introduced and the core thickness increased but the total cooler area has remained the same.
More cooling air is so the engine's fan drive ratio has been increased. The fan speed is controlled by a fan clutch to minimize the power consumption when the full cooling capacity is not needed. The control is modulating so the fan speed is always optimized for the cooling requirements.

Specifics - 36-48t Forklift Truck, Laden Container Handler & ReachStacker
In order to limit the power consumption of the bigger fan and limit the fan noise, a hydraulic driven fan has been introduced on these models. A hydraulic controller controls the fan speed based on temperature inputs for charge air, engine coolant, hydraulic oil and transmission oil. The new hydraulic driven cooling fan operates and takes power only when required/on demand. More engine power is available for driving, which improves the acceleration.

The models also feature two Variable Displacement Pumps (VDP) to supply the steering and main hydraulic functions. At low engine rpm one pump is active and the second pump cuts in when the engine revs up. A third Variable Displacement Pump provides pressure and flow to the hydraulic fan. In this system are the: fan motor, high pressure filter with thermostatic bypass valve, hydraulic oil cooler, wet brake axle cooling and tank return filter. This VDP always provides a minimum pressure and flow for filtration and axle cooling. When there is cooling demand the pressure and flow raise.